Sagipora Sopore Baramulla 193201 Jammu & Kashmir
Git is a version control system and command line tool used by developers worldwide to manage their projects and their team’s codebase.
Learn more about Git here.
Version Control is a way to manage changes made to certain files in a repository, so when making changes to code, all the files are tracked and we can see a history of all the changes – multiple versions of our code. This lets us keep an eye out for bugs and if things go wrong, then we can go back to an older version of our codebase.
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A repository is the collection of files that make up your project. All these files are stored remotely on platforms such as GitHub. So at all times, you will be able to access remote files and local files and the files that you cloned on your machine.
Learn more about version control here
A clone is a replica of a repository to which we can make changes locally on our machine and possibly push them back to our remote project.
Github is a code hosting platform for version control that developers use to work together on projects from all over the world. In other terms, this is where you can store your projects and find like-minded people to work with.
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First of all go to github.com/signup and follow the steps to create your account, Github is really user friendly!
That was easy, right? Now that you have your own account, it’s time to create your first repository!
To create a new repository simply press the green button as shown above in the image. It will then take you to the repository creation page.
Give your shiny new repo any name you want! and hit the green colored create repository button. Now it’s time to add files to our github repository.
Now in order to use Git commands in our terminal, we will need to install Git on our local machine. So simply go to “git-scm.com/downloads” to download and install the latest version!
Next you will need a project to upload, so let’s say i have simple web page built that i want to upload to GitHub. Firstly, we need to initialize a repository, this tells Git that this folder “project-folder” is something that it needs to keep track of.
To do that we need to run a Git command in terminal:
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Immediately after doing this, a repository will be initialized. To add our files we will need to run more commands to push our files to the github repository.
git add . git commit -m "Add files to repo" git remote add origin https://github.com/nasyx-rakeeb/tesla-clone.git git push -u origin master
Now check your github repository, you will see your uploaded files there. Now let’s see what these commands do!
1) git init
Use it to initialize an empty repository in the project’s root folder.
2) git add
Use this command to stage your changes, to prepare them for a commit, you can specify a file name or use a dot to add all changes.
3) git commit -m “message”
Use it after adding changes, to commit them, which creates a local snapshot of the current state of your branch. You can go back to any past commits that your make.
4) git push
Use this command to push all your commits to the remote branch that you’re working on. If you push to a new branch, you must also specify that you want to push your current branch upstream.
5) git pull
This command will pull any changes that might have been added on the remote branch that you’re working on.
6) git fetch
This will get the updates from the remote, including new branches
7) git checkout <branch-name>
Use it to switch to a different active branch or you can use git checkout -b <branch-name> to create a new branch from the currently active one
8) git clone <repository-link>
This will clone an existing github repository to your local machine by providing the link to the repository on github.
9) git status
Use this one to check the current status of your working branch, to see details such as changed files, unstaged or staged files and so on.
Set the name and email that will be attached to your commits and tags.
git config --global user.name "test" git config --global user.email "email@example.com"
Create a local repo (omit <directory> to initialize the current directory as a git repo.
git init <directory>
Download a remote repo
git clone <url>
Add a file to staging
git add <file>
stage all files
git add .
commit all staged files to git
git commit -m "message"
Add all changes made to tracked files and commit
git commit -am "message"
main: default development branch
origin: default upstream repo
HEAD: current branch
HEAD^: parent of HEAD
HEAD~4: great-great grandparent of HEAD
List all local branches. Add -r flag to show all remote branches -a flag for all branches
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create a new branch
git branch <new-branch>
switch to a branch and update the working directory
git checkout <branch>
create a new branch and switch to it
git checkout -b <branch>
delete a merged branch
git branch -d <branch>
delete a branch whether merged or not
git branch -D <branch>
add a tag to current commit (often used for new version releases)
git tag <tag-name>
Merge branch A into branch B. Add -no-ff option for no-fast-forward merge
git checkout b git merge a
Merge and squash all commits into one new commit
git merge --squash a
Rebase feature branch onto main (to incorporate new changes made to main). Prevents unnecessary merge commits into feature. Keeping history clean.
git checkout feature git rebase main
Interactively clean up branch commits before rebasing onto main
git rebase -i main
Interactively rebase the last 3 commits on current branch
git rebase -i Head~3
Move (&/or rename) a file and stage move
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git mv <existing-path> <new-path>
Remove a file from working directory and staging areas then stage the removal
git rm <file>
Remove from staging area only
git rm --cached <file>
View a previous commit (READ ONLY)
git checkout <commid_ID>
Create a new commit reverting the changes from a specified commit
git revert <commit_ID>
Go back to a previous commit and delete all commits ahead of it (revert is safer). Add –hard flag to aslo delete workspace changes (BE VERY CAREFULL)
git reset <commit_ID>
List new or modified files not yet committed
List commit history, with respective ID’s
git log --online
Show changes to unstaged files. For changes to staged files, add –cached option
Show changes between two commits
git diff commit_ID commit2_ID
Store modified and staged changes. To include untracked files, add -u flag. For untracked and ignored files, add -a flag.
As above, but add a comment
git stash save "comment"
Partial stash, Stash just a single file, a collection of files or individual changes from within files.
git stash -p
List all stashes
git stash list
Re-apply the stash without deleting it
git stash apply
Re-apply the stash at index 2 then delete it from the stash list. Omit stash@(n) to pop the most recent stash
git stash pop stash@(2)
Show the diff summary of stash 1. Pass the -p flag to see the full diff.
git stash show stash@(1)
Delete stash at index 1. Omit stash@(n) to Delete last stash made.
git stash drop stash@(1)
Delete all stashes
git stash clear
add a remote repo
git remote add <alias>
View all remote connections. Add -v flag to view urls.
remove a connection
git remote remove <alias>
Rename a connection
git remote rename <old> <new>
To Fetch all branches from remote repo (no merge)
git fetch <alias>
Fetch a specified branch
git fetch <alias> <branch>
Fetch the remote repo’s copy of the current branch then merge
Move (rebase) your local changes onto the top of new changes made to the remote repo (for clean, linear history)
git pull --rebase <alias>
Upload local content to remote repo
git push <alias>
Upload to a branch (can then pu request)
git push <alias> <branch>
That’s it for this article guys, i hope you learnt something new from here. If you need to say anything then leave a comment below.
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